Lareef A. Samad B.Sc (Hons)
The Julius Cohen Necklace gets its name from the designers of this exquisitely crafted 18k yellow-gold and emerald necklace, Julius Cohen Jeweler Inc., America's most celebrated and award-winning jewelery design firm of the 20th century, estabished in 1956. It is important to remember that even though the necklace is named for its designer, this rare and valuable piece of jewelry was actually owned by Margaret McCormack Sokol wife of Dr. Herman Sokol, renowned chemist involved in the U.S. Government's synthetic rubber program during World War II; one of the pioneers of the American antibiotic production program; discoverer of the antibiotic tetracycline who also developed the basic processes for the manufacture of tetracycline; head of the Bristol-Myers Company's pharmaceutical program eventually becoming the President of the Bristol-Myers Company. Dr Herman Sokol died in 1985 and his beloved wife Margaret McCormick Sokol died in New York City on June 4, 2006. At the time of her death she bequeathed most of her personal jewelry to the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, which are now an important part of the National Gem Collection.
Julius Cohen 18k yellow-gold emerald and diamond necklace
Photo by - Ken Larsen
Another view of the Julius Cohen 18k yellow-gold emerald and diamond necklace
Photo by Ken Larsen
The Julius Cohen 18k yellow-gold emerald and diamond necklace is designed as a branch and leaf motif. The stem and branches made of 18k yellow-gold are pave-set with small round brilliant-cut diamonds with a total weight of approximately 7.50 carats. The leaves are represented by pear, drop, oval and round shaped, cabochon-cut, claw-set Colombian emeralds, with a total weight of approximately 350 carats. There are 77 emeralds in the necklace.
Five main branches/fringes of the Julius Cohen Necklace enlarged
Photo by Ken Larsen
One of the main branches/fringes enlarged
The branches of the stem twisting outwards look like fringes of a necklace. Five main branches/fringes set with 3 large emeralds and 1 small emerald in each are situated in front of the necklace. In between the main branches/fringes two more smaller emeralds are placed, one arising directly from the main stem and the other from a smaller branch.
Smaller branches/fringes situated in other parts of the necklace enlarged
Photo by Ken Larsen
The smaller braches/fringes are set with one medium-sized emerald and one small emerald in each with a medium sized emerald arising directly from the main stem placed in between. This sequence is repeated right round the necklace.
The emeralds in the necklace are cut en cabochon in a variety of shapes, such as pear, drop, oval and round. The fact that the emeralds are cut en cabochon reveals that the emeralds are highly included, a normal cut employed for such emeralds. En cabochon emeralds, whether pear, drop, oval or round have a flat bottom and a dome-shaped top. In fact the cracks, fissures and other inclusions in these emeralds known as "jardin" are clearly visible to the naked eye, as seen in the enlarged photographs of the main fringes in the necklace.
One of the large emerald fringes enlarged showing clearly the inclusions known as "jardin"
The color of the emeralds appear to be a deep grass-green color without any undertones. The yellowish color near the claw settings are actually a reflection of the yellow gold of the setting.
The 77 cabochon emeralds in the necklace are of Colombian origin, but the exact mine in Colombia from which the emeralds were sourced is not known.
However, given the fact that the hue, saturation and tone of the green color of Colombian emeralds vary with the source, one may make an intelligent guess on the mine of origin of the emeralds. Muzo emeralds are a deep grass-green color; Chivor emeralds are a deep-green color with a bluish undertone; Coscuez and Penas Bancas emerlads are deep-green with a yellowish undertone and the Gachala emeralds are pale green in color.
The emeralds in this necklace appear to have a deep grass-green color without any undertones. Hence, the possible mine of origin of the emeralds in the Julius Cohen Necklace is the Muzo emerald mine, the most productive emerald mine in Colombia, exploited since colonial times, situated at the northwestern end of the Colombian emerald -belt about 100 km northwest of the capital city of Bogota. A large percentage of emeralds traded in Bogota still originate from the Muzo mines. Most of the Muzo emeralds are heavily included and do not have an outstanding crystal clarity. However, Muzo emeralds with exceptional size and clarity have also been discovered and are renowned for their beauty with a deep herbal-green color. Emeralds originating from Chivor and Gachala are superior in terms of clarity than Muzo emeralds.
Map of Boyaca district of Colombia showing the two principal emerald mining districts of Muzo and Chivor
Discovered in 1594 in the Itoco mountains after an extensive search by the Spanish conquistadors since 1558, the Muzo emerald mines were exploited extensively by the Spanish for the first 15 years, the Spanish Crown taking a fifth of the output from these mines. Production at the mines declined rapidly after this due to a combination of unfavorable factors, such as compulsory labor imposed on the neighboring tribes; long working hours imposed on the workers; cruelty and maltreatment of workers; high mortality rate among the working population and the fleeing of the population from the region leading to depopulation. Other factors include dishonesty on the part of both workers and supervising officials, and the change from underground operations in galleries to open-cut operations.
Original Muzo mining area
Photocredit - Jean Claude Michelou (ICA)
The difficult terrain of the Muzo mining area of Colombia
The status quo prevailed until the middle of the 18th century, with little or no increase in production, until a disastrous fire in the mines put a stop to all mining activity and the mines were abandoned for a long period of time and recommenced production only after Colombia had gained its independence from the Spanish in 1819. The new republican government lacking the organization and managerial skills needed for running the mines, opted for private exploitation taking 10% of the profits. Accordingly, the mines were given out on lease to private companies from 1824 to 1848, until the Congress in Bogota decreed that all emerald deposits in the country should be worked under the direction of the nation. From 1848 to 1909 the Muzo mines were worked almost continuously, both by private individuals from the area, as well as private parties who entered into contracts with the government to run the mine as partnerships or strict concessions. However, the development of the mines suffered due to lack of a sustained policy of management, technical skills, and sound geological knowledge and advice.
Another photograph of the Muzo mining area
Photocredit - Jean Claude Michelou (ICA)
In 1909, the Colombian Government handed over the exploitation of the Muzo mine on a partnership basis to a British-based company, The Colombian Emerald Mining Company Ltd. This contract however was rescinded by the government after a few years, and later mining came to a standstill during World War I. Mining resumed after World War I, but the mines were closed again in 1925 due to poor funding by the government. Production resumed again in 1933, under the management of Peter W. Rainier, which was marketed by an American company on a commission basis for the government. Mining rights to the Muzo mine was sold in 1946, to Banco de Republica, Bogota, which ran the mine through the 1950s and 1960s until the year 1968. when the government sponsored company ECOMINAS was granted authority to mine Muzo and also to buy stones from private parties as well as to cut and sell stones. In 1977, the Muzo mines were leased to the Sociedad de Mineros Boyancences for a ten year period.
Approach to the main shaft of the Muzo mine - the Clavada
Photocredit - Jean Claude Michelou (ICA)
Since then the Muzo mines were leased by the government for 10-year periods. Until year 2004 the lease for the exploiation of Muzo was held by Tecminas, the mineral company based in Bogota, Colombia. In 2004, the next lease passed to another Bogota-based company Coesminas. Both Tecminas and Coesminas swithched over from open pit mining to underground operations, by developing underground workings, eversince the Government imposed a ban on open-pit mining aided by dynamite explosions. In November of 2009, Muzo International, a branch of Texma Group, was awarded exclusive mining rights to the Muzo mines. Soon afterwards Muzo International mobilized the population of Muzo City and embarked on a new operation for mining emeralds as well as cutting and polishing the emeralds produced. Today, approximately 75% of the population of Muzo is involved in the emerald industry.
Muzo shaft known as Puerto Arturo
Photocredit - Jean Claude Michelou (ICA)
The main shaft of the Muzo mine known as "Clavada" is very deep, having been worked for many years and can be accessed by an elevator installed in the shaft. As the shaft was dug deeper and deeper, at different levels side shafts or tunnels were dug, that extended horizontally to long distances where emerald veins were exploited fully, before digging deep to a different level, where the side tunnelling was repeated. Today, the main shaft of the Muzo mine extends very deep into the earth, with horizontal shafts radiating from it at different levels.
The Muzo mines were at one time the most prolific emerald mines in the world, and is the most famous of Colombia's emerald mines. It has produced stones of matchless beauty for more than a thousand years. According to Julius Roger Sauer, who wrote the book, The Emeralds of the World, the rare, fine, saturated green crystals sometimes found there are the yardstick by which all other emeralds are judged.
Based on the hue, saturation and tone of the green color of the emeralds and the heavily included nature of the stones that resulted in the emeralds being cut as cabochons, it was suggested that the emeralds in the Julius Cohen Necklace most probably originated from the Muzo emerald mines of Colombia. This was only a suggestion based on visible physical characteristics. However, this can only be confirmed by subjecting a random sample of these 77 emeralds to the Oxygen isotope ratio O18/O16 test developed by Gaston Giuliani of the Petrographic and Geochemical Research Center in Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France. The O18/O16 ratio in the molecules of emeralds generated from the surface of the emerald crystal using an ion microprobe, which leaves only a microscopic hole on the surface a few microns in diameter, not visible to the naked eye, is determined. Each emerald deposit in the world has its own characteristic O18/O16 ratio. The researches have prepared a table of O18/O16 ratios of 62 emerald deposits from 19 countries around the world. The O18/O16 ratio of the random sample of emeralds is then compared with the reference table of 62 emerald deposits, which identifies the source of the emeralds very accurately. If the O18/O16 ratios of the random sample of emeralds agree with the O18/O16 ratio for Muzo emeralds, the emeralds in the necklace without any doubt originated from the Muzo emerald mines.
Rarely individuals maintain a close relationship with their alma mater that nurtured them and created opportunities for steering their future course in life, once they are established in a secure position in life. Dr. Herman Sokol and Mrs. Margaret McCormack Sokol are two such individuals who established a lifelong relationship with their alma mater Montclair State University where both of them graduated in the late 1930s, when MSU was Montclair State Teachers College offering a four-year degree program in pedagogy. They also established a close relationship with the University of Michigan where Dr. Herman Sokol obtained his masters degree and the New York University where he obtained a doctorate in organic chemistry.
Writing a biography of Mrs. Margaret McCormack Sokol in isolation from her husband Dr. Herman Sokol will be a difficult task as their lives were closely inter-connected, eversince they first met as students at Montclair State Teachers College.
Both of them were born in New Jersey in 1916. While at Montclair State, Margaret Sokol was a science major who participated in a broad range of student activities including dance, journalism and athletics. Margaret McCormack graduated in 1938 and Herman Sokol in 1937.
Herman Sokol and Margaret McCormack got married shortly after graduation. In keeping with their training as professional teachers both of them began their careers as teachers, teaching mathematics and science in public schools.
In 1940, Herman Sokol obtained a masters degree in chemistry from the University of Michigan and subsequently obtained a Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry from New York University. During World War II, Dr. Sokol served with the Rubber Reserve Corporation and helped develop the government's synthetic rubber program.
After the war, Dr. Sokol was responsible for the design, construction and initial operation of the first plant for manufacturing antibiotics in Europe, built under the Marshall Plan.
Dr. Sokol was one of the pioneers of the American antibiotic production program. In the early 1950’s, Dr. Sokol and several associates discovered the important antibiotic tetracycline and subsequently he went on to develop the basic processes for its manufacture which are used world-wide today. The antibiotic tetracycline became a new weapon for the treatment of bacterial infections of the lungs and kidneys, urinary infections and diseases that were resistant to penicillin. Tetracycline was used for the treatment of a range of diseases, such as nongonococcal urethritis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus, chancroid, cholera, brucellosis, anthrax, syphlis and acne.
Dr. Sokol then joined the Heyden-Newport Chemical Corporation, now part of Tenneco Inc. where he became its executive vice-president. He also served as a director on the Board of Technicon Corporation, the medical instrumentation company run by Whitehead founder Edwin C. “Jack” Whitehead.
Dr. Sokol joined Bristol-Myers, the New York-based consumer products corporation, in 1962 where he organized the company's international pharmaceutical program. In 1973, he was elected a director of the company, acting as chairman of its pharmaceutical, health care and international divisions. In 1976, he was named president of Bristol-Myers, in which capacity he served until his retirement in 1981 at the age of 65 years.
Margaret Sokol taught high school mathematics for 15 years after graduation from Montclair State College. She then resigned her position to accompany her husband on all his world-wide trips, over a period of 20 years. Both Dr Sokol and wife Margaret Sokol took an active interest in the alumni affairs of the Montclair State University, University of Michigan and New York University, and used their personal wealth to support various institutions in these Universities.
MSU Richardson Hall housing part of the College of Science and Mathematics
MSU Science Hall housing the other part of the College of Science and Mathematics
Out of the six colleges in the Montclair State University, the College of Science and Mathematics (CSAM) benefitted most from their philanthropy. The Sokol's generosity was seen and felt throughout CSAM from the Sokol Seminar Room in Science Hall to scholarships, fellowships, and research awards; to the Margaret and Herman Sokol Science Lecture Series, and the University's first named chair.
Fleming Robben W and Aldyth Administration Building
at the University of Michigan
In 1984 Dr. and Mrs. Sokol established the Margaret and Herman Sokol Fellowships for the support of graduate students in the Chemistry Department of the University of Michigan. The first Sokol fellowship was awarded in 1985, when unfortunately Dr. Sokol died.
University of Michigan Chemistry Department
In 1983, Dr. and Mrs. Sokol established the Margaret and Herman Sokol Doctoral Fellowship in the Sciences, at the New York University, awarding one doctoral fellowship each year, amounting to US$33,000 over a period of 12 months based on superior academic and research performance. Dr. Herman Sokol and his wife Margaret Sokol believed that the help they provided for these young scientists would carry forward Dr. Sokol’s contributions into the next generation.
Arts & Science Faculty, New York University
Another institution that benefitted from the munificence of Dr Sokol and Mrs. Margaret Sokol is the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research a non-profit research and teaching institution located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, a fiscally independent entity from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, founded by businessman and philanthropist Edwin C. "Jack" Whitehead. Herman Sokol served on the Whitehead Board of Directors from 1981 until his death of cancer at age 68 in 1985. Margaret Sokol completed her husband's term on the Board from 1985 to 1987.
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research
Mrs. Margaret Sokol continued with her husbands philanthropic activities after his unfortunate death in 1985. In 1991, she established the Margaret and Herman Sokol Postdoctoral Awards in Biomedical Research to promote and enhance cancer-related research at Whitehead, a disease that claimed the life of her beloved husband Dr. Herman Sokol. More than 20 Whitehead postdoctoral scientists have benefited from Mrs. Sokol's philanthropy.
In 1999, Mrs. Margaret Sokol gifted US$1.25 million to Montclair State University to endow the University's first named professorship, the Margaret and Herman Sokol Chair in Chemistry. In creating the chair, Margaret McCormack Sokol provided one of the largest gifts ever received by the University in its 90-year history. Commenting on her generous gift to the institution Mrs. Sokol said, "I consider this gift a very sound investment in the future of higher education. It recognizes the excellence of the faculty and the science programs at Montclair State University and will help guarantee the best possible education for generations of University students, today and well into the future."
Continuing the Sokol's support for the University of Michigan's Department of Chemistry, Mrs. Margaret Sokol in 1990, established the Sokol Scholar program for eight incoming undergraduate students who indicated an interest in chemistry and showed academic promise. In 1991 she established the Margaret and Herman Sokol Faculty Award. This award is presented annually to a member of the faculty in the University of Michigan College of Literature, Science & Arts (LSA) in the Departments of Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics or Physics. Since that time Chemistry professors Kopelman, Morris, Pecoraro and Coucouvanis have received the award. In 1992, the Margaret and Herman Sokol International Travel grants were instituted to enable graduate students to work abroad.
At the New York University, Margaret was an active member of the Board of Overseers and a thoughtful patron of Arts and Science, supporting a wide range of initiatives including undergraduate scholarships, post doctoral fellowships, the Margaret and Herman Sokol Faculty Award in the Sciences and the Margaret and Herman Sokol Chair in Chemistry.
Dr. Herman Sokol and Mrs. Margaret Sokol were both honored by their alma mater for their contribution to the advancement of science, for the support given to scientific, medical and pharmaceutical research and for their longtime association and support for their alma mater Montclair State University. The University conferred an honorary degree on Dr. Herman Sokol in 1982. Ten years later in 1992, Montclair State University conferred an honorary degree on Mrs. Margaret McCormack Sokol.
Mrs. Margaret McCormack Sokol kept herself busy with the alumni affairs of the University of Michigan, New York University and Montclair State University. She served on the board of directors of the Whitehead Institute for Biochemical Research for a short time after her husband's death. She was chairman of the Educational Foundation and was a past director and historian of the American Association of University Women. Mrs. Sokol was a volunteer at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. She herself was an active and enthusiastic art collector and owned an extensive collection of modern art.
Mrs. Margaret McCormack Sokol died on Sunday, June 4, 2006 in New York City, after a short illness, at the age of 90 years.
Mrs Margaret McCormack Sokol not only gave generously for scholarships, fellowships and other awards in the sciences at various institutions, but also took a keen interest in meeting the recipients of these awards, encouraging them in the various studies and researches undertaken by them.
Recollecting past memories, Ittai Ben-Porath, a postdoctoral researcher and former Sokol Scholar, who had met Mrs. Margaret McCormack Sokol says, " I was impressed with her being a very down-to-earth person, amiable and straightforward, and with a lot of spark and a sharp sense of humor." Another former Sokol Scholar and a postdoctoral fellow, Andreas Herrlich makes these glowing remarks about Mrs. Margaret McCormack Sokol, "She was a little person with great vigor and life in her eyes; very inquisitive, kind, compassionate and witty."
Whitehead Founding Member Robert Weinberg has this to say about her, " Margaret Sokol was very supportive of what we did, and excited to meet young people. She had the vitality of a woman 15 years younger."
Susan Whitehead, Vice Chair of the Whitehead Institute's Board of Directors paid this glowing tribute to Margaret McCormack Sokol. "She and her husband had a few institutions which they cared about deeply, including Whitehead. She was a woman who was absolutely not sentimental, but those sets of relationships with organizations were very important to her. Margaret was just an incredible character, and I grew to be extremely fond of her. She was very sharp-witted, insightful and opinionated, and she didn't suffer fools at all. She was a very, very fine human being, and really her own person."
Mrs Margaret McCormack Sokol's philanthropy did not end with her death on June 4, 2006. Dr. Herman Sokol and Mrs. Margaret McCormack Sokol were rare and exceptional human beings who always used their accumulated wealth to encourage scientific research for the advancement of fellow human beings. Their philanthropic support to selected institutions during their lifetime had made a tremendous impact in advancing scientific, medical and pharmaceutical research for the betterment of mankind. However, their philanthropy did not stop with their demise. At the time of her death Mrs. Margaret McCormack Sokol had made substantial financial bequests to the same institutions she and her husband supported during their lifetimes. Mrs Margaret McCormack Sokol also bequeathed most of her personal jewelry to the Smithsonian's National Gem Collection housed in the Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems & Minerals.
Mrs. Margaret McCormack Sokol made a bequest of US$4.0 million from her estate to the Whitehead Institute of Biomedical Research. Using this money the Whitehead Institute established its first endowed chair, the Margaret and Herman Sokol Chair in Biomedical Research, on September 26, 2006. Whitehead Director David Page said, "Margaret and Herman Sokol were enormously supportive of Whitehead from the very first days. This extraordinarily generous gift will allow further progress in the basic research that was so important to them."
Gerald R. Fink, a Whitehead Founding Member and professor of biology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was appointed as the first holder of the Sokol Chair. Soon after his appointment Gerald R. Fink said, "I am deeply honored to be the first holder of the Sokol chair. Margaret Sokol represents an important part of our heritage: the many supporters who follow our progress and share the excitement of Whitehead scientists as they attack research problems.”
Montclair State University's College of Science and Mathematics had a special place in the hearts of Mrs. Margaret Sokol and her husband, as this was the place where they first met and received their basic training in the disciplines of science and mathematics when it was Montclair State Teachers' College. This explains the largest bequest of US$8.5 million to CSAM, the largest gift in Montclair State's history.
The bequest was used by CSAM to create endowed fellowships, professorships, a faculty awards program for the College of Science and Mathematics (CSAM), and the Margaret and Herman Sokol Institute of Pharmaceutical Life Sciences.
The Margaret and Herman Sokol Institute for Pharmaceutical Life Sciences was established by Montclair State University's College of Science and Mathematics in 2007 to rapidly advance the new skills, approaches and research that are critical to the development of tomorrow's solutions to global health issues. The Institute will be the first of its kind at Montclair State and will become a Center of Excellence in New Jersey. It will create a unique environment to bring together faculty, undergraduate and graduate students, research associates, technicians, scientists from the pharmaceutical industry, and potentially postdoctoral fellows with shared interests in pharmaceutical and medicinal life sciences.
University of Michigan's Department of Chemistry received the second highest bequest from the estate of Margaret Sokol amounting to US$5.5 million.
The bequest provided US$2 million to endow the Margaret and Herman Sokol Chair in Medicinal Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry. One and a half million dollars was provided to endow two graduate fellowships in Chemistry, entitled the Margaret and Herman Sokol Fellowship Fund in the Chemical Sciences. An additional two million dollars was provided to establish the Margaret and Herman Sokol Faculty Award Fund for grants for research projects of exceptional promise. This award was for science departments in the College of Literature, Science & Arts (LAS).
At the time of her death on June 4, 2006 Mrs. Margaret McCormick Sokol bequeathed several pieces from her personal jewerly collection to the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History to enrich the National Gem Collection. These pieces are :-
1) G10600 - Diamond Ring - A platinum and diamond ring set with a 4.58-carat, emerald-cut diamond flanked by two tapered baguette-cut diamonds.
G10600 - 4.58-carat emerald-cut-diamond and platinum ring
2)G10601 -Elbaite Ring - A platinum ring set with a rectangular step-cut elabite tourmaline.
G10601- Rectangular step-cut Elabite Tourmaline Ring
3) G10602 - Diamond Bracelet - An Art Deco diamond and ruby bracelet designed by Tiffany & Co.
G10602 - Art Deco Diamond and Ruby Bracelet by Tiffany & Co
4) G10603 - Art Deco diamond bracelet designed by Lacloche.
G10603 - Art Deco Diamond Bracelet by Lacloche
5) G10604 - Diamond Bracelet - An Art Deco diamond bracelet designed by Tiffany & Co.
G10604 - An Art Deco Diamond Bracelet - by Tiffany & Co.
6)G10605 - Diamond Necklace - An open work floral link design platinum necklace set with round brilliant-cut diamonds.
G10605 - Open work floral link design diamond and platinum necklace
7) G10606 - Julius Cohen Necklace - 18k yellow-gold necklace featuring 77 cabochon emeralds that dangle from a branch-and-leaf design. Designed by the New York City, Madison Avenue based jewelry manufacturing company, Julius Cohen Jeweler Inc. established in 1956, totally dedicated to the designing, manufacturing and selling of its own jewelry, creating a very special and close relationship with each customer, on a personal basis. The Julius Cohen Necklace is the subject of this webpage.
You are welcome to discuss this post/related topics with Dr Shihaan and other experts from around the world in our FORUMS (forums.internetstones.com)
1) Colombia - The Green Fever Experience - by Jean Baptiste Senoble A.G. (AIGS). http://www.fieldgemology.org
2)Emeralds from Colombia - http://www.geohavens.com
3) Muzo Emeralds - http://www.mensalemeralds.com
4) The Green Fire of Emeralds - by Robert Genis. The Gemstone Forecaster. Vol.14, No.1 - Part One
5) A History of Inventing in New Jersey : From Thomas Edison to the Ice Cream Cone - by Linda J. Barth
6) Whitehead Creates First Endowed Chair - September 26, 2006. http://wi.mit.edu/news
7) MSU establishes first endowed chair with $1.25 million gift - June 10, 1999. http://www.montclair.edu/news
8) The Sokol Legacy - Transforming Lives: The Creation of the Margaret and Herman Sokol Institute of Pharmaceutical Life Sciences.
9) The Sokol Institute - http://www.montclair.edu/csam/sokol-institute/
10) University of Michigan - Chemistry News Letter - 2005-2006. Letter, from the Chair. https://www.chem.lsa.umich.edu/chem/alumni/news/06newsletter.pdf
11) The New York Times - Herman Sokol - Drug Pioneer who Led Bristol-Myers, Dies - Marvine Howe, June 23, 1985.
12) The New York Times - June 11, 2006. Paid Notice - Deaths - Sokol Margaret McCormack. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=
13) Julius Cohen Necklace G10606 http://geogallery.si.edu/index.php/en/10210017/julius-cohn-necklace
Dr Shihaan Larif
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